Perhaps, absolutely anyone has heard of contraceptives (contraceptives) and protomax. Someone actively uses them, and who only use them in special cases.
Perhaps, absolutely anyone has heard of contraceptives (contraceptives). Someone actively uses them, and who only use them in special cases. There are many types of contraceptives: condoms, caps and spirals. Oral contraceptives are recognized as one of the most effective. Pearl index (shows the effectiveness of the method of contraception – the lower it is, the more effective the method) for oral contraceptives is less than 0.5%. For comparison, a condom has a value of 5-12%. There are different types of oral contraceptives. Each type of drug has a different effect on the body. We will talk about this in the material.
What are oral contraceptives?
One of the most popular types of hormonal contraception is the pill, or oral contraceptive. They got this name because they are used orally, i.e. through the mouth.
Oral contraceptives are made up of chemical analogs of natural female hormones: estrogen and progestin.
Oral contraceptives are made up of chemical analogs of natural female hormones: estrogen and progestin. Estrogen is a hormone that ensures the formation of the female phenotype in general. Progesterone is the main pregnancy hormone. It is necessary for the onset and maintenance of this physiological process. When an oral contraceptive is ingested, the natural hormonal balance changes, making it impossible to conceive. Oral contraceptives prevent the egg cell from ripening and leaving the ovary. They also thicken mucus inside the uterus, making it much harder for the sperm to reach the egg.
Oral contraceptives prevent the egg cell from ripening and leaving the ovary.
Types of oral contraceptives
Oral contraceptives vary according to the amount and ratio of hormones they contain. There are 3 types of oral contraceptives, which are selected individually by the doctor:
Single or monophasic. Tablets containing the same estrogen and progesterone levels are used throughout the cycle.
Two-phase. They contain a constant dose of estrogen, and the concentration of the second component changes depending on the day of the cycle. Thus, during the period of taking the drug, the amount of hormones that will enter the body will change.
Three-phase. Each of the tablets contains its own, unique amount of hormones, characteristic for each phase of the female cycle.
Three-phase are considered the most modern, because the amount of hormones secreted in women is not constant, therefore, from the outside, they must come in different quantities.
Pros and cons
The hormones in oral contraceptives are similar to those produced by the female body. Therefore, the drugs we are considering can serve not only as a means of contraception, but also for the treatment of certain diseases, such as acne. Tablets are often prescribed for severe premenstrual syndrome, irregular menstruation, and functional and organic disorders.
As a complication of long-term use of oral contraceptives, experts identify: the risk of developing breast cancer, a benign liver tumor. Due to the action of hormones, the viscosity of the blood increases, which can lead to the formation of blood clots, and therefore to a stroke or heart attack, the risk increases even more if a woman smokes. Before using these drugs, it is imperative to consult a specialized doctor – a gynecologist.