Hypertensive disease is a common disease of the cardiovascular system throughout the civilized world. It is the most human of all diseases. It is characteristic first of all for those people who lead a very rich, intense, emotional way of life. The prevalence of AG is 15-25%, and in persons over 65 years of age it is more than 50% In patients with AG there is an increase in total mortality by a factor of 2-5, and mortality from cardiovascular disease by a factor of 2-3.
The neurogenic origin of hypertension in the vast majority of cases (except for symptomatic hypertension) is not currently in doubt. Its occurrence is associated with a stable overstrain of the nervous system as a result of either stressful, “shock” factors or prolonged exposure to not very intensive damaging agents. These are also psychogenic stresses of family, domestic, industrial character, intoxication and other negative factors of civilization, wrong mode of life (constant fatigue, lack of rest and sleep, sharply reduced physical activity), dietary imbalance. In the interval of 20 – 49 years in men and women the prevalence of arterial hypertension increases with age in the same way, in the age range of 40 – 69 years the index changes little in men (32.8 – 41.1%), and in women it continues to increase rapidly compared to the age group of 40 – 49 years: doubling at 50-59 years (34.7%) and tripling at 60-69 years (57.6%). Starting as a result of neurosis (one of its manifestations), hypertensive disease in its development quickly leads to a variety of disorders, lesions of function of many organs (target organs), including the cardiovascular system. In this regard, the therapy of this disease should be multifactorial, so it was found that a decrease in BP by 5-6 mm Hg reduces the likelihood of stroke by 50%, CHD – by 14%.
Control of high blood pressure is provided with the help of non-pharmacological measures and drugs. The purpose of control should be considered the reduction of blood pressure to 140/90 mm Hg and possibly less, especially in patients without myocardial ischemia and brain. However, the question of what level of blood pressure should be reduced to, remains unresolved, it should be known that there is no so-called “age” high blood pressure.
Npharmacological measures include:
- normalization of excess body weight;
- alcohol consumption restriction;
- regular physical exercises;
- restriction of salt intake;
- quitting smoking;
- reducing mental tension.
In the following issues, we will discuss in more detail the methods of both non-pharmacological and medical treatment of hypertension.